Electrical control panels are designed and used to control mechanical equipment. Each one is designed for a specific equipment arrangement and includes devices that allow an operator to control specified equipment.
Electrical panel components control every piece of equipment in every industry. It's difficult to describe all possible combinations because every industry and most companies have defined component preferences.
APFC Panel has microcontroller based programmable controller which switches the capacitor banks of suitable capacity automatically in multiple stages by directly reading the reactive load (RKVA) which works in the principle of VAR sensing tends to maintain the PF to 0.99 Lag. The capacitor banks may be selected in number of stages as 4/6/8 according to the load pattern. Modern power networks consists of wide variety of electrical and power electronics loads, in case of such varying loads, the power factor also varies as a function of the load requirements .So it is practically difficult to maintain consistent power factor by the use of fixed compensation i.e. fixed capacitors which shall need to be manually switched to suit the variations of the load. It can lead to situations where the installation can have a low power factor leading to higher demand charges and levy of power factor penalties. In addition to not being able to achieve the desired power factor it is also possible that the use of fixed compensation can also result in leading power factor under certain load conditions. This is also unhealthy for the installation as it can result in over voltages, saturation of transformers, maloperation of diesel generating sets, penalties by electricity supply authorities etc. It is therefore necessary to automatically vary, without manual intervention, the compensation to suit the load requirements. This is achieved by using on Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) system which can ensure consistently high power factor without any manual intervention. In addition, the occurrence of leading power factor will be prevented.APFC products are fully automatic in operation and can be used to achieve, consistently high power factor under fluctuating load conditions Reduced KVA demand charges, Lower energy consumption in the installation by reducing losses Preventive leading power factor in an installation.
Install APFC Panel to avoid penalties and enjoy the benefits automatically. For maintaining the power factor according to the load factor, proper capacity of capacitors is to be connected. The value of capacitors to be connected will vary with respect to load and its existing PF. There are two ways to maintain PF-
Fixing of capacitor at the load end permanently or at the mains. Generally which is recommended for the fixed load like pumps, fans etc. and it is not possible for the load which has variations in the load and PF.
The power factor can be maintained by installing Automatic Power Factor Control Panel (APFC Panel)
Control panel consist of a controller. Controller may be PLC, DCS, relay or some other type. It gives digital signal input signal to the MCC panel to start the motor. Control panel works based on the PLC /DCS program or the relay logic. Instruments are normally connected to control panel. Indications for the interlocks also will be there in control panel. Nowadays single panel is used of using separate control and MCC panel.
Ease in modification of logic, reduced size, means of remote communications and advances in the technology have made PLC Automation Control Panels an edge over conventional relay based systems. Control Systems Engineers has provided PLC based Panels from PLC of Allen Bradley, Siemens, Modicon, GE Fanuc. From small I/O application to the complex I/O systems are provided by the Control Systems Engineers. Control Systems Engineers have developed communication software's for remote communication of the PLC Panels in various different protocols. With PLC based Panels HMI/MMI are provided to provide the operator various messages and controls of the process plants touch screen MMI are provided. To effective control of the system.